Alfred Spector, PhD, is chief technology officer at Two Sigma Investments, a New York City based hedge fund that uses a variety of technological methods, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, and distributed computing, for its trading strategies. Previously, he joined Google in 2007, where Spector lead research, open source, university relations, internationalization, engineering for Google.Org, and many education initiatives. Previously, Spector was vice president of strategy and technology at IBM’s Software Business, and prior to that, he was IBM’s vice president of services and software research. He founded Transarc Corporation, was a pioneer in distributed transaction processing and wide area file systems, and was an associate professor of computer science at Carnegie Mellon. As a Hertz Fellow, Spector received his PhD in computer science from Stanford university, and his bachelor’s from Harvard. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the IEEE, and the ACM. In 2001, Spector received the IEEE Computer Society’s Tsutomu Kanai Award for work in scalable distributed systems.